On Radio-Canada’s flagship French-language book program, Plus on est de fous, plus on lit! Donald Cuccioletta calls The Complete Muhammad Ali by Ishmael Reed an “excellent book” that must be read to understand the boxer and his times. If you understand French, you are invited to listen to this interview. It begins at the 17th minute.
Ishmael Reed’s The Complete Muhammad Ali continues to shake up all the received ideas about Muhammad Ali, the Nation of Islam, the Honorable Elijah Muhammad, Malcolm X, boxing as a whole, racism in boxing, and much much more.
Ishmael Reed, a guest at the National Book Festival in Washington D.C., was interviewed on the PBS Book View Now live stream by Rich Fahle and Kwame Alexander. Book View Now insisted on Twitter that “The Complete Muhammad Ali from @BarakaBooks is a must-read!”
Watch the interview on Youtube (September 5, 2015)
Ishmael Reed is one of the English language’s most important contemporary writers. His novels reveal a witticism and ironic sense found in very few other writers of the period. His essays and articles challenge commonly held dogmas in both mainstream thought and among those outside the popular mind. An intelligent reader of his works cannot help but be challenged by the points he raises, his use of the language, and the courage present. Liberals, socialists, right wingers and libertarians; men and women, LBG and T–everyone is open to Reed’s insightful and piercing pen as he points us all to an essential fact–our shared humanity and its manipulation by the powerful and their wannabes.
Reed’s mammoth biography of the Greatest of All Time, Muhammad Ali, will be published in July. Appropriately titled The Complete Muhammad Ali, this book is more than just a biography of the man the world calls Muhammad Ali. It is also a history of the sport and business of boxing, Elijah Muhammad and the Nation of Islam, the 1960s civil rights movement in the United States, and a myriad of other associated topics–even the history of the African continent. It also serves as a critique of sports in a capitalist system, the domination of the US sports media by white (often openly racist) men, and the Ali hagiography business. From the late jazz violinist Billy Bang to Hugh Masekela; from Kareem Abdul Jabbar to Howard Cosell, this text is greater than the massive sum of its parts.
Simply put, it is a fascinating document. I say this as a fan of Ishmael Reeds writing and as a historian very interested in discovering and publicizing the histories we are not told. The book is comprised of Reed’s detailed and entertaining narrative intermingled with numerous interviews from people in numerous walks of life.
Reed challenges the commonly held idea that Ali was the first racially proud boxer since Jack Johnson. He does so by citing incidents of racism Joe Louis and other fighters before Ali experienced and their refusal to bend to them. He also argues, rightfully so, that the racism those men lived with was rawer and more violent than that which has existed since the civil rights movement began in the 1950s, at least as far as Black celebrities were concerned.
In writing this book, Ishmael Reed has created the most complete biography of one of history’s most famous personalities. In addition, he has provided the reader (and the world) with a revelatory look at the world Muhammad Ali resided in. It was a world of money, racial animosity, religion, and politics. It was (and is) a world peopled with luminaries and egotists, humble souls and family. It is a tale not only of a life that reacted to the times, but a detailed look at the influence Muhammad Ali and the others discussed in the book had on those times.
Like almost any human being, Muhammad Ali was a complex person. The fact that he spent so much time on the world stage led some to think his contradictions were weaknesses or signs of something less than genuine. Ishmael Reed has done a detailed and well-rounded presentation of the man and his complexities. It was and is a life representative of the times. This quote from Harry Belafonte makes the point quite well: “He was the poster boy for what the struggle was all about.”
Not everyone who appears in this biography agrees with Belafonte. Some do not even consider Ali the greatest boxer of all time, pointing instead to Sugar Ray Robinson and even Joe Louis. I am not enough of a boxing fan to have any opinion, but suffice it to say, these comments will certainly raise old arguments amongst those who are fans. The more important aspect of Reed’s interviews and often confrontational challenge to the legend of Ali is to his status as a civil rights champion on par with Martin Luther King, Jr. Reed is not alone in this perspective. Indeed, numerous interviewees agree with Reed, while allowing for the fact that Ali’s domination of the world stage—in part because of his status as a sport champion—lent the civil rights struggle an international cachet it was unlikely to attain without the commanding presence of Muhammad Ali. Furthermore, argue many of those who appear in The Complete Muhammad Ali, it was Ali’s stand against the US military draft that clinched his public status as someone who was more than a boxer, more than an athlete. Personally speaking, I concur completely with this latter sentiment. When Ali refused the military draft, it validated my growing opposition to the US war in Vietnam and called the entire US imperial operation into question among some of my older and more knowledgeable peers. This phenomenon repeated itself millions of times in cities, gyms and schoolyards around the United States and the world.
One question Reed asks every interviewee is why they think Muhammad Ali is so well liked now by the establishment. Every single response to this query, whether from a member of the Nation Of Islam, a media pundit or a black radical, is essentially the same. Ali is so well liked now, they say, because he is “safe.” His illness has rendered him often incapable of speech and he often seems to be weaker than his closest confidantes claim he actually is. Some of the answers also mention Ali’s age, pointing out that white America has always found old Black men “harmless.” Critic Jill Nelson goes the furthest, remarking that white America always found Ali to be safe as long as he was in the ring. It was when he acted publicly outside the realm of boxing that he scared and angered the white establishment. White America likes their Black men in cages, whether they are made of elastic ropes or steel bars.
The Complete Muhammad Ali is twelve solid rounds of writing. Throughout the text, Ishmael Reed jabs and juts, fades and dances. He even plays a little rope-a-dope. In the end, his biography of Muhammad Ali stands above its competition. It is not always pretty and parts of it leave the legend of Ali somewhat bloodied. In doing so, it rings closer to the truth than the sanitized tale today’s public has accepted as real. This text is an in depth and studied look at a man, a sport, a nation and a history. In his contemplation of all of these, Ishmael Reed paints a canvas that is simultaneously darkened with shadows and brightened with hope; defined by history that is certain to be riven with a fair amount of controversy. Muhammad Ali became and remains much bigger than the man who bears that name. Ishmael Reed’s biography of Ali is similar in its breadth and scope.
Ron Jacobs is the author of Daydream Sunset: Sixties Counterculture in the Seventies published by CounterPunch Books. He lives in Vermont. He can be reached at: email@example.com.
The Complete Muhammad Ali by Ishmael Reed will be available in July 2015. Here he talks about the book.
Ishmael Reed describes this book as “The Complete Muhammad Ali” because most of the hundred odd books about the Champion are “either too adoring or make excessively negative assertions.” One biography, for instance, blames Ali, along with Gerald Ford, for losing Vietnam, another calls him a “malicious buffoon,” while others—The Ali Scribes—make him into a Saint.
The Complete Muhammad Ali charts Ali’s evolution from Black Nationalism to a universalism, but gives due credit to the Nation of Islam’s and Black Nationalism’s important influence on Ali’s intellectual development. Instead of being dismissed as “Lunatics” and “thugs,” Black Nationalists and Nation of Islam members are given a chance to speak up. There is something to the remark made by Sam X, who introduced Ali to the Nation of Islam. He said that without Ali’s mentor Elijah Muhammad, nobody would ever have heard of Muhammad Ali.
Among the many voices omitted from other books, Filipino American writer Emil Guillermo, for instance, recounts how “The Thrilla’ in Manila” brought the Philippines into the twentieth century.
More than a biography, The Complete Muhammad Ali is a fascinating portrait of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first.
The book includes more than 30 previously unpublished photos.
Ishmael Reed is a prize-winning essayist, novelist, poet and playwright. He taught at the University of California-Berkeley for thirty-five years, as well as at Harvard, Yale and Dartmouth. Author of more than twenty-five books, he is a member of Harvard’s Signet Society and Yale’s Calhoun Society. He lives in Oakland, California.
Other books by Ishmael Reed published by Baraka Books include Barack Obama and the Jim Crow Media, The Return of the Nigger Breakers and Going Too Far, Essays on America’s Nervous Breakdown.
Forthcoming: Ishmael Reed on Muhammad Ali; Barry Healey and Cordelia Strube on Exhilarating Prose; Mick Lowe’s New Novel; Rebel Priest on Liberation Theology and Action
Here’s a glimpse of forthcoming books.
Rebel Priest in the Time of Tyrants, Mission to Haiti, Ecuador and Chile by Claude Lacaille, Foreword by Miguel D’Escoto, M.M. (translated by Casey Roberts) | June 2015, $24.05 | pre-orders March
Claude Lacaille witnessed close up the oppression and poverty in Haiti, Ecuador, and Chile where dictators and predatory imperialists ruled. Like other advocates of Liberation Theology, he saw it as his duty to join the resistance, particularly against Chilean military dictator Augusto Pinochet. But the dictators were not alone, as they often enjoyed the support of the Vatican, sometimes tacit, but then brazenly open under Popes John Paul II and Benedict XVI. He began writing Rebel Priest in Chile where thousands shed blood simply because they defended victims of dictatorship, opposed rapacious policies and economic doctrines, consoled the downtrodden, and breathed new hope and courage into a people who desperately needed it.
Claude Lacaille lives in Trois-Rivières, Québec.
Miguel d’Escoto Brockman is a Nicaraguan diplomat, politician, and priest of the Maryknoll Society of Missionaries and a supporter of Liberation Theology.
The Insatiable Maw, The Nickel Range Trilogy, Vol. 2 by Mick Lowe | May 2015, $19.95 | pre-orders March
Jake McCool, the injured hard-rock miner introduced in The Raids, returns to work for INCO, but at its nearby Copper Cliff smelter complex. He soon finds himself embroiled in a vicious fight over health and safety. Particularly alarming are the extreme levels of sulphur dioxide poisoning the air in the smelter and in the surrounding area and creating Sudbury’s infamous “lunar landscape.” This fight reaches new dimensions. Free-lance reporter Foley Gilpin, who had worked for the Mine Mill union in The Raids, sparks attention at The Globe & Mail. Then local parliamentarian Harry Wardell smells high-level collusion between Inco and the government at Queen’s Park in Toronto. Through the lives of Jake and his girlfriend Jo Ann Winters, their roommate Foley Gilpin, and a new cast of characters, Mick Lowe chronicles an entire community’s eco-defiance.
Mick Lowe is a prolific journalist, writer, and newspaper columnist, and author of the true crime classic Conspiracy of Brothers and The Raids. He lives in Sudbury, Ontario.
Cover and Illustrations by Oryst Sawchuk
Exhilarating Prose by Barry Healey and Cordelia Strube | May 2015, $19.95 | pre-orders March
Cognitions, Contemplations, Insights, Introspections, Lucubrations, Meditations, Musings, Prognostications, Reflections, Reveries & Ruminations
on the Process of Writing
This smartly illustrated literary miscellanea is intended to stimulate readers and writers of English prose. From “dead language – the speaks” (i.e., ad-speak, media-speak, corporate-speak) through “re-writing – Again?” to rules – to obey or not to obey –, authors, Barry Healey and Cordelia Strube examine what makes good writing… and what makes bad writing. With tongue often in cheek, they scrutinize various forms of prose and the seven major prose elements, and reflect on how to approach the writing process most effectively. Exhilarating Prose also abounds with examples of startling writing, wide-ranging quotes from celebrated authors, and their own ruminations on the oddities of writing and the infinite eccentricity of the human mind. To those interested in English words “in their best order” (Coleridge), Exhilarating Prose will inform, engage and amuse. (NOTE: 100% gluten free)
Barry Healey is a former television writer and novelist.
Cordelia Strube is a playwright and the author of nine critically acclaimed novels and teaches creative writing at Ryerson. Both authors live in Toronto.
The Complete Muhammad Ali by Ishmael Reed | June 2015, $29.95 | pre-orders April
Ishmael Reed calls this book The Complete Muhammad Ali because it includes material and photographs not included in most of the one hundred other books about the Champion. Admirers write the two best sellers about the champion. One of them, the “official” biography, was supervised by his third wife, Lonnie Ali, who has been known to censor any material that she might find unfavorable to the champion’s reputation. The other extreme can be found in books that blame President Ford and Muhammad Ali for the loss of Vietnam, or that present him as a malicious buffoon.
The Complete Muhammad Ali charts a middle course. It also includes voices that are omitted from the other books. Filipino American author Emil Guillermo speaks about how “The Thrilla’ In Manila” brought the Philippines into the Twentieth Century. This was one of the many interviews that took the author from McDonald’s in Louisville to the plush rooms of The New York Literary Establishment, and from his hangout an Eritrean restaurant called the Dejena to a marathon race in Las Vegas. The book charts Ali’s evolution from Black Nationalism to a universalism. But this does not discount the Nation of Islam and Black Nationalism’s important influence on Ali’s intellectual development. Instead of being dismissed as “Lunatics” and “thugs” we hear Black Nationalists and Nation of Islam members in their own words. There is something to the remark made by Minister Sam X, who introduced Ali to the Nation of Islam. He said that without Elijah Muhammad, his mentor, nobody would have ever heard of Muhammad Ali. More than a biography, The Complete Muhammad Ali is a fascinating portrait of the Twentieth Century and the beginning of the Twenty-First.
Ishmael Reed is a prize-winning essayist, novelist, poet, and playwright and the author of numerous books, including Barack Obama and the Jim Crow Media and Going Too Far. He taught at the University of California–Berkeley for 35 years, as well as at Harvard, Yale, and Dartmouth. He lives in Oakland, California.
Baraka Books | Proudly Going Where Others Fear to Tread
Baraka Books is pleased to announce that we will be present at the Toronto International Book Fair, Nov. 13-16 at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre (N. Building). (Opening hours: 10 am to 8 pm, Friday through Sunday.)
Look for us at Booth 108 where we will be teamed up with A Different Booklist and Caribbean Book Fair. The University of the West Indies Press will also be exhibiting their books. You’ll find all kinds of books on Africa, Black History and Culture, Quebec history and politics, Indigenous Peoples’ history, and much much more. This booklist will be DIFFERENT.
Below are just a few of the titles that we will be featuring. For more on these books just flip through our Catalogue.
Some of our authors will be present for book signings. We hope to see you there. And please tell your Toronto friends about it.
Justice Belied, The Unbalanced Scales of International Criminal Justice, Sébastien Chartrand & John Philpot, Editors
Slouching Towards Sirte, NATO’S War on Libya and Africa, by Maximilian Forte
Barack Obama and the Jim Crow Media, The Return of the Nigger Breakers, by Ishmael Reed
Dying to Live, A Rwandan Family’s Five-Year Flight Across the Congo, by Pierre-Claver Ndacyayisenga
Challenging the Mississippi Firebombers, Memories of Mississippi, 1964-65, by Jim Dann
The Question of Separatism, Quebec and the Struggle over Sovereignty, by Jane Jacobs
America’s Gift, What the World Owes to the America’s and Their First Inhabitants, by Käthe Roth and Denis Vaugeois
Trudeau’s Darkest Hour, War Measures in Time of Peace, October 1970, Guy Bouthillier, Édouard Cloutier, editors
Journey to the Heart of the First Peoples Collections, Musées de la civilisation
Rwanda and the New Scramble for Africa, From Tragedy to Useful Imperial Fiction, by Robin Philpot
The History of Montréal, The Story of a Great North American City, by Paul-André Linteau
A People’s History of Quebec, by Jacques Lacoursière
An Independent Quebec, The Past, the Present and the Future, by Jacques Parizeau
Hanging Fred and a Few Others, Painters of the Eastern Townships, by Nick Fonda
Going Too Far, Essays on America’s Nervous Breakdown, by Ishmael Reed
The Franz Boas Enigma, Inuit, Arctic, and Sciences, by Ludger Müller-Wille
The Raids, Volume 1 of the Nickel Range Trilogy, Mick Lowe
Principals and Other Schoolyard Bullies, Short Stories by Nick Fonda
I Hate Hockey, by François Barcelo
21 Days in October, by Magali Favre (Young Adult)
The Adventures of Radisson 1, Hell Never Burns, by Martin Fournier (Young Adult)
Robin Philpot, Publisher
By Rosemary Lévy Zumwalt *
(This review appeared in Counterpunch on January 9, 2014)
Challenging the Mississippi Firebombers, Memories of Mississippi 1964-65. Jim Dann. Montréal: Baraka Books, 2013. Pp. 235, preface and afterword by John Harris, introduction, appendix, a short note on sources, acknowledgments, publisher’s note.
In his memoir, Challenging the Mississippi Firebombers, Memories of Mississippi 1964-65, Jim Dann put to paper the stories from his time in Mississippi 50 years ago, working as a young college student for fifteen months in Sunflower County to establish Freedom Schools and to help register African-Americans to vote. Folklorists will recognize in this account what Frank deCaro refers to as “our life memory . . . informed by and greatly influenced by the oral stories that we tell . . . about our lives” and “the social importance” and “considerable power” of life memory and oral stories (2013:ix).
Jim Dann did not initially think of these narratives as worthy of the printed page singulair allergy. Simply accounts of his own life, he recalls that his children were “his first audience”: “. . . they listened to these stories in the car and on vacations. I was just trying to keep them from being bored till we got to our destination, but they genuinely looked forward to the next ‘chapter’ and years later asked me to write them down” (233). Dann did not live to see the book published, though just before his death he saw the page proofs (Publisher’s Note).
Memory, Webster’s Dictionary reminds us, “applies both to the power of remembering and to what is remembered.” There is, indeed, power in this book – power and struggle and heroism. There is the day-to-day heroism of the African-American residents of Ruleville, Drew and Indianola, of the pastors of the Black churches and the teachers in the segregated schools. Woven into these stories is the heart and soul of community struggle for respect and human rights, a struggle that depended on the common folk standing up for their rights in the face of the entrenched and vicious white power structure. We know some of these stories, e.g., the brutal murders of the young Civil Rights works, Andrew Goodman, James Chaney and Michael Schwerner in Meridian, Mississippi (45-46); the impassioned testimony of Fannie Lou Hamer before the Democratic Party Credential’s Committee; and the attempt for recognition at the 1964 Democratic Convention of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (114-19). However, with more intimate detail, Jim Dann – to be nicknamed, “Jim Dandy,” by the young people with whom he worked in Mississippi – takes us into his dorm room at the training center in Oxford, Ohio, when James Foreman as an organizer with the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) asked if he would go to Meridian. “I said I would be happy to but I had already promised that I would go to Ruleville” (45). Foreman turned to Dunn’s roommate, Andrew Goodman, and asked him to go. Goodman readily agreed. “We liked each other, and I was a bit disappointed and a bit envious when he told me before the end of the training that he had to leave early with [James] Chaney. There was some kind of emergency and the CORE leader at Meridian, Michael Schwerner, decided that the three of them should skip the final days of training and return to Meridian” (45). By the end of the training session, when the young freedom workers were boarding the bus for Mississippi, rumors were circulating that three volunteers were missing; their bodies would be found over a month later, cast into a muddy dam near the site of the murder (109). The grim reality of the triumvirate – torture, lynching and the hateful grip of the Ku Klux Klan – awaited these young people at the end of the journey for their volunteer work in Mississippi. Dann recalls,
“Everyone’s fear and nervousness evaporated under the warm and sunny greeting we received from Fannie Lou Hamer. We had stopped in front of her house, and she came bounding out . . . shouting her greetings before we could collect our luggage from the bus driver, who was as eager to leave as Hamer was to have us here. “(49-50)
As William A. Wilson notes in “Personal Narratives,” stories are crafted “from carefully selected details from the worlds of their authors” (Wilson 2006:268). Wilson quotes Neil Postman, who writes in the Atlantic Monthly, that stories give meaning to our existence, “‘Without air, our cells die. Without a story our selves die’” (Postman in Wilson 2006:68). The cautionary stories recounted in Challenging the Mississippi Firebombers did indeed contain wisdom for staying alive. Behind each axiom for security was a story,
- Never tell anyone where we are going or where we had been . . . .
- Don’t even tell people when we leave. Disconnect the interior dome lights so we can’t be seen when entering and exiting a car. (That was how Medgar Evers had been killed.)
- Never let a car pass you on the highway no matter how fast you have to drive. (. . . Jimmy Travis had been shot in that fashion). (64, parenthetical comments in original)
Dann recollected, “I sometimes had to drive one hundred miles per hour to avoid being passed, but nobody ever passed our car when I was driving. . . . One time, however, I lost control and ended in a ditch, but I managed to drive out without a car passing us” (64). In a harrowing account, Dann tells of driving out to “the tiny hamlet of Tippo,” on a single-lane dirt road, bordered on both sides by cotton fields (149).
“There was not another vehicle on that road. In about five miles we passed a road grader off the dirt road parked in the field with a white driver who watched us. Something about that did not seem right to us so John [Harris] started fiddling with our two-way radio in the SNCC [Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee] car, just randomly moving the tuner dial, while I drove. After a minute or two of just static we heard the following conversation: ‘Where are they?’ ‘About ten miles from Tippo. There’s a nigger and a nigger-lover.’ ‘What’s the car look like?’ ‘It is a white Plymouth.’ ‘Well, by the time it gets to Tippo it will be red with their blood.’ I looked at John and he looked at me and without missing a second I wheeled the car around and at top speed raced back down the dirt road. “(150)
Jim Dann’s account takes the reader through the momentous enactment of the Voter’s Rights Act and President Lyndon B. Johnson’s War on Poverty with the initiation of the Head Start Program. He reflects, “No doubt voter registration, desegregation and Freedom Schools had a long-range revolutionary aspect, but of all the things I was involved with, Head Start provided the most immediately palpable results in bettering the condition of the people then and there” (188).
Dann left Mississippi to return to UCLA for the fall semester in 1965 (200). He would go back to Mississippi in June 2000 for a reunion of those who had worked together in 1964-65, and who had embraced the SNCC anthem adapted from a song popular in 1964, “Keep on Pushing,” and changed by Fannie Lou Hammer to “Keep on keeping on” (157). Jim Dann, John Harris and Karen Koonan drove together from the Memphis airport, passed Winona, Mississippi, where Fannie Lou Hamer “had been savagely beaten thirty-years earlier” (204), and arrived at the Holiday Inn in Indianola.
“Black hotel clerks kindly greeted us in a place they never would have been allowed inside in 1965. We got directions to the B. B. King concert that was to be in a park near Main Street, not far from the Indianola jail. . . . The crowd was totally integrated and white sat next to black, both cheering King and his music. I would encounter many other changes in the weekend, but this integrated crowd, who loved B. B. King so much, was the biggest surprise of the reunion. My mind went back to his concerts at the all-black Club Ebony where he bought us chicken dinners.” (205)
The next day they visited the jail in Drew, where Dann and others had been repeatedly incarcerated for civil disobedience and simply as the result of police harassment. In 2000, it was “dilapidated and overgrown with weeds.” In Ruleville, “the new black mayor” greeted them, and they visited the memorial gravesite of Fannie Lou Hamer (205).
Jim Dann does not present himself as a hero, or even as having been courageous. Rather he portrays himself as a young person who was committed to working with others, some of those who were whites and blacks from other parts of the United States, who would spend some months in Mississippi trying to bring about change; and others who were African-Americans living a life steeped in the oppression of the segregated South. It is indeed in the lived lives of the ordinary people, recounted in this memoir, who lived out the lyrics of “Keep on Keeping on,” who were heroes of monumental everyday courage. Jim Dann has enriched us all by chronicling his memories in Challenging the Mississippi Firebombers: Memoirs of Mississippi 1964-65.
De Caro, Frank. 2013. Stories of Our Lives, Memory, History, Narrative. Logan: Utah State University Press.
Webster’s Seventh New Collegiate Dictionnary. 1963. Springfield, MA: G. & C. Merriam Company, Publishers.
Wilson, William A. 2006. “Personal Narratives,” in The Marrow of Human Experience, Essays on Folklore, ed. Jill Terry Rudy, 261-81. Logan: Utah State University Press.
* Rosemary Lévy Zumwalt is Dean of the College Emerita and Professor Emerita of Anthropology at Agnes Scott College in Decatur, Georgia, USA. Her most recent publication is Franz Boas and W. E. B. Du Bois at Atlanta University, 1906 (2008) for which she received the John Frederick Lewis Award from the American Philosophical Society. She can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Nobel Prize-winner Toni Morrison, Ishmael Reed and Quincy Troupe participated in a fascinating and heated discussion at the Harlem Arts Salon in New York on Sunday, Feb. 24. Baraka Books publisher Robin Philpot and partner were among the 80-plus guests who packed into Margaret and Quincy Troupe’s home in Harlem.
Ishmael Reed has published his two latest nonfiction books with Baraka Books, Barack Obama and the Jim Crow Media, The Return of the Nigger Breakers (2010) and Going Too Far, Essays about America’s Nervous Breakdown (2012). In getting his work published here in Quebec, Ishmael Reed likens himself to the fugitive slaves who came up here via the underground railroad. His reason for turning to Baraka Books: his agent said that no US publisher would touch his book Barack Obama and the Jim Crow Media.
Read more about the Harlem Arts Salon.
Toni Morrison told people how, as a child, she learned the power of writing. She was about four years old. With her sister, she was writing with chalk on the sidewalk. They decided to write a word written big on a nearby wall: “F U …” Her mother saw the word and went berserk. They had to get the mop and water and clean the sidewalk before they went home to punishment. “That’s when I learned about the power of writing,” laughed Toni Morrison.